What is an Indicator?
An indicator can be defined as follows:
Types of Indicators (Performance indicators)
This type of indicators measure the quantity, quality and timeliness of resources-human, financial and material technological and information provided for a project, program or activity.
These measure the progress of activities in a program or project.
Output indicators measure the quantity, quality and timeliness of the products (goods or services) that are the result of an activity, project or program.
They measure the intermediate results generated by programme outputs. Correspond to any change in people's behaviour as a result of project or program activities.
Characteristics of a good indicator
Objectively Verifiable Indicators (OVIs)
Objectively verifiable indicators are signs or signals demonstrating whether each level of the vertical logic is or is not being achieved.
They must be valid, reliable, precise, cost-effective and stated independently from other levels. They ought to make clear how the target group will benefit from the realisation of outputs. Indicators should be specific in terms of: Quantity, Quality, Time, Target group and place.
Examples of Indicators
Land use indicators
Surface water indicators
Evaluations are divided into two broad categories:
1. FORMATIVE EVALUATION
Sometimes refered to as internal evaluation is a method of judging the worth of a project or programme while the project/ programme is in progress (Continual improvement). Helps the evaluators and project managers find out how well goals and objectives are being met. The main purpose is to identify deficiecnies resulting in the instigation of corrective measure hence ensuring that the project achieves its milestones and eventualy the targets. Employs more of qualitative methods of inquiry.
Examples where it can be applied are:
Questions that Formative Evaluation seeks to answer are:
2. SUMMATIVE EVALUATION
Takes place following project implementation (summation). Sometimes refered to as external, it is associated with more objective and quantitative methods with the focus being on the outcome. Some of the instruments used to collect the data are Questionnaires, Surveys, Interviews, Observations and Testings among others. Methodology used to gather data ought to be specified, carefully designed and carefully executed to guarantee accurate and valid data.
Can be applied on virtually all programs such as Health programs, Environmental programs, Educational programs, Humanitarian programs among others where the program managers and evaluators seek to find out their impact or whether their objecctives materilaised.
Examples of questions which summative evaluation seeks to answer are:
Objectives of this article are:
This is an assessment conducted with purpose of providing an analytical framework for rating the ability to monitor and evaluate progress in achieving designated goals.
One way of conducting a readiness assessment is by determining the roles and responsibilities of your M&E team. for instance:
Capacity Building requirements
"If you don't know where you are going, any road will take you there." (Alice's adventures in Wonderland Lewis Carroll 1865).
In order not to wonder in wonderland and having completed the details in step one, it is of importance for the M&E team to gather and agree on a set of outcomes that will be used in the evaluation process.
It involves identiifying problems and issues of concern then
turning them to positive outcomes.
It is important that every member of the M&E team participates in this process. Two, Three, Four Heads are better than one.
It is this set of outcomes that will determine the direction that the M&E will take.
The process of setting and agreeing on outcomes involves the following:
Step 3: Selecting Key Performance indicators to Monitor Outcomes
Baseline: The first measurement of an indicator
Targets are specified objectives that indicate the number, timing and location of that which is to be realized.
The following factor will aid in target selection:
Step 7: The "E" in M&E-Using Evaluation to support a result based management system
Evaluation and Monitoring are complimentary to each other in that in order for an M&E specialist to get good data for evaluation, all data gathered during monitoring ought to be considered. All monitoring leads to an overall assessment of your project which is the evaluation part.
Evaluation is not restricted to assessing causes and changes after intervention or initiatives are over. It is a process usually done at the end of a project. However, there are different methodologies of evaluation. You can opt to undertake it at the begining of a project, in the middle of the project and at the end of the project.
Evaluation process provides the following information:
Pragmatic uses of evaluation
M&E reports are used to:
Presentation of Data in clear and understandable form
There are variuos ways findings can be used. The following are ten ways of how evaluation findings can be used:
Step 10: Sustaining the M&E system within an organization
Six critical components of sustaining effective M&E systems