By Michael Jumba
In early times, when the population was still small and the land available to assimilate the wastes was large, waste disposal did not pose a problem. But when man began to form groups, villages and communities, wastes became a consequence of life that needed to be taken care of (UNEP, 2005).
Unfortunately, epidemics like the bubonic plague and many more fatal events had to happen before man realized that he had to properly manage the wastes he produced. From careless open dumping practices to engineered sanitary landfills, proper and effective solid waste management has evolved into what it is today and continues to transform as society evolves (UNEP, 2005). Open dumping is still the most prevalent method of waste disposal for many countries, most particularly the less developed ones. The foremost reasons for this practice are lack of knowledge and financial constraints. Nonetheless, it should not require another epidemic, sickness, or contamination before national and local governments give proper solid waste management the priority and urgency it deserves (UNEP, 2005).
What is waste?
Waste can be loosely defined as any material that is considered to be of no further use to the owner and is, hence, discarded. However, most discarded waste can be reused or recycled, one of the principles of most waste management philosophies. What may be of no further use to one person and regarded as waste to be dumped, may be of use to the next person, and is the basis of the rag picking trade, the sifting through of refuse at landfills for recovery and resale, a very fundamental historical waste management practice still functioning in many countries, often conducted on a highly organised commercial basis.
Waste is generated universally and is a direct consequence of all human activities. Wastes are generally classified into solid, liquid and gaseous. Gaseous waste is normally vented to the atmosphere, either with or without treatment depending on composition and the specific regulations of the country involved. Liquid wastes are commonly discharged into sewers or rivers, which in many countries is subject to legislation governing treatment before discharge.
In many parts of the world such legislation either does not exist or is not sufficiently implemented, and liquid wastes are discharged into water bodies or allowed to infiltrate into the ground. Indiscriminate disposal of liquid wastes pose a major pollution threat to both surface and groundwater. In this article we will focus on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW).
So what is Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)?
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is a type of non-hazardous solid wastes (with the exception of household hazardous waste) generated by households, businesses, institutions, and light industry (administrative, cafeteria, packaging, etc.), including ash from the combustion of MSW. Types of solid waste excluded from the definition of MSW are industrial process waste, construction and demolition debris, offal, sludges, tires, and ashes, except ashes from the combustion of MSW (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1995).
In another definition, Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), commonly called “trash” or “garbage,” includes wastes such as durable goods (e.g., tires, furniture), nondurable goods (e.g., newspapers, plastic plates/cups), containers and packaging (e.g., milk cartons, plastic wrap), and other wastes (e.g., yard waste, food). This category of waste generally refers to common household waste, as well as office and retail wastes, but excludes industrial, hazardous, and construction wastes (Center for Sustainable Systems, 2016). In many developing countries of which Kenya is a part, municipal solid waste disposal by open dumping is still under practice for reasons such as: ignorance of the health risks associated with dumping of wastes; acceptance of the status quo due to lack of financial resources to do anything better; lack of political determination to protect and improve public health and the environment; by traditions thus it is the oldest known way to handle MSW, just to fill a hole in the ground (Kurian et.al., Undated).
Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM)
Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is an intricate process encompassing planning, engineering, organization, administration, financial and legal aspects of activities associated with generation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and disposal of municipal solid waste (household garbage and rubbish, street sweepings, construction debris, sanitation residue etc.) (Shafqat et.al., 2014). Unfortunately, MSWM has not always been a high priority for local and national policy makers and planners, especially in developing countries. Other issues with more social and political urgency might take precedence and leave little budget for waste issues. Thus, in many cities around the world, effective, functioning policy measures have been elusive and the resources invested in the sector inadequate. National governments can make a critical contribution by making waste management a national priority (United Nations Environment Programme, 2013).
The collection of municipal solid waste is a public service that has important impacts on public health and the appearance of towns and cities. It is one of the important obligatory functions of any urban local authority. It refers to all activities pertaining to the control, collection, transportation, processing and disposal of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in accordance with the best principles of public health, economics, engineering, conservation, aesthetics and other environmental considerations (Munala and Moirongo, 2011). Unfortunately many urban administrations seem to be losing the battle of coping with the ever-increasing quantities of waste. The challenge is made greater by the diversity of materials in the waste, which is no longer mainly food waste and ash, but includes more and more plastic packaging, paper and discarded electronic equipment (UN-HABITAT, 2011).
In low-income countries as well as many middle-income countries, MSW is the largest single budget item for cities and one of the largest employers (Hoornweg and Bhada-Tata, 2012). However, the failure to consider important parameters of each particular location has led to many failed systems and the wastage of huge sums of money. In many cases, collection vehicles and containers have been purchased in large numbers but they have not been effective and have been operational for only short periods that are much less than their expected design lives. In some cases unsuitable equipment has been purchased because of corruption, but in many cases the fault lies with the assumption that the same type of waste collection equipment will work effectively in any situation (UN-HABITAT, 2011).
Solid waste management is one of the most difficult environmental problems in the urban centres of developing countries, where services are often grossly deficient, especially within low-income settlements. Often these settlements comprise a sizable proportion of the city’s area and population – as much as half in some cases. Rapid urban growth, accompanied by the increasing density of population, traffic congestion, air and water pollution, increasing per capita generation of solid waste and the lack of land conveniently situated for waste disposal, all point to a rapid further aggravation of the already acute problems of solid waste management. Future demands are certain to increase as cities’ residential, commercial and industrial sectors expand and as economies develop (Coffey & Coad, 2010).
The MSWM problem in Kenya
It is worth noting that Kenya as a country has some of the best legislations, regulations, strategy and policy in the world in-so-far-as environmental management and MSWM is concerned. Some of the legislations are: the Kenya Constitution (2010), the Environmental Management and Co-ordination Act (EMCA)1999, the national environment policy 2013, NEMA waste management regulations of 2006, the Kenya Vision 2030, the National Solid Waste Management Strategy, the Environmental Management and Coordination (Impact Assessment and Audit) Regulations 2003, the Public Health Act Chapter 242 of the Laws of Kenya (revised 2012), the Occupational Safety and Health Act 2007, the County Governments Act 2012, The urban areas and cities Act 2011, and Local government Act (Cap 265).
The Environmental Management and Co-ordination Act (EMCA), 1999 is an Act of Parliament meant to provide for the establishment of an appropriate legal and institutional framework for the management of the environment matters.
Chapter four, part two section 42 of the Constitution of Kenya (2010) proclaims that every person has the right to a clean and healthy environment (Kenya, Republic, 2010). However, the situation on the ground is far from close to what is on paper. Municipal solid waste continues to be a major problem in our cities and rural towns.
According to the national environment policy 2013, 6.3.1 Inefficient production processes, low durability of goods and unsustainable consumption and production patterns lead to excessive waste generation. Despite efforts to encourage reuse, recycling and recovery, the amount of solid waste generated remains high and appears to be on the increase (Kenya, Republic, 2013).
The National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) waste management regulations of 2006, are very explicit in matters waste generation, waste transportation, and waste disposal. For example, concerning responsibility of waste generators, no person shall dispose of any waste on a public highway, street, road, recreational area or in any public place except in a designated waste receptacle and any person whose activities generate waste shall collect, segregate and dispose or cause to be disposed off such waste in the manner provided for under the regulations. Concerning transportation of municipal solid waste, a person licensed to provide the service shall ensure that the collection and transportation of such waste is conducted in such a manner that does not cause scattering, escaping and/or flowing out of the waste and that they shall ensure that the vehicles and equipment for the transportation of waste are in such a state that shall not cause the scattering of, escaping of, or flowing out of the waste or emitting of noxious smells from the waste (National Environment Management Authority, 2006).
Despite the existence of laws and policies guiding waste management, weak implementation and poor practices have led to towns and cities being overwhelmed by their own waste, consequently affecting public health and the environment (NEMA, 2015). Evidence points to the direction that we are lacking in integrated municipal solid waste management.
What is integrated municipal solid waste management?
According to Kaluli, Mwangi and Sira (2011), Integrated solid waste management includes source reduction, source separation, recycling and reuse as well as materials recovery. The waste materials that remain should be safely disposed into a sanitary landfill.
Sanitary land filling is an important component of integrated waste management for safe disposal of the fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW) that cannot be reduced, recycled, composted, combusted or processed. However, about three-quarters of the countries and territories around the world use ‘open dumping’ method of disposal of MSW. It is a primitive stage of landfill development at which solid wastes are disposed of in a manner that does not protect the environment, susceptible to open burning, and exposed to disease vectors and scavengers. Lack of adequate waste treatment and disposal infrastructure, large volumes of waste involved in metropolitan cities, proximity of disposal sites to the water bodies and ever-burgeoning residential areas even in the proximity of waste disposal sites has given rise to significant environmental deterioration and health impairment in most of the cities (Kurian et.al., Undated).
Challenges facing MSWM in Kenya
This urbanization and increased affluence has led to increased waste generation and complexity of the waste streams. This trend is compounded by growing industrialization of the Kenyan economy. Despite the existence of laws and policies guiding waste management, weak implementation and poor practices have led to towns and cities being overwhelmed by their own waste, consequently affecting public health and the environment (NEMA, 2015).
In low-income residential areas where most services are unsatisfactory, residents normally give priority to water supply, electricity, roads, drains and sanitary services. Solid waste is commonly dumped onto nearby open sites, along main roads or railroad tracks, or into drains and waterways. Pressure to improve solid waste collection arises as other services become available and awareness mounts regarding the environmental and health impacts of poor waste collection service.
Poorly served residents often form community-based organisations (CBO) to upgrade local environmental conditions, improve services and/or petition the government for service improvements. CBOs which may arise in middle and upper income neighbourhoods as well as in low-income areas may become valuable partners of the government in local waste management. When sufficiently organised, community groups have considerable potential for managing and financing local collection services and operating waste recovery and composting activities (Schubeler, Wehrle, & Christen, 1996).
At the moment in Kenya, the involvement and engagement of these valuable stakeholders is still inadequate.
In addition to the problem, municipal decision makers do not give adequate priority to SWM. Instead, financial allocations go for staff salaries as the first priority, and what is left is spent on visible infrastructure projects. Very little is allotted to improving SWM services, varying between 1 percent and 30 percent of the total municipal budget depending on the size of the municipality (Zhu et.al, 2008).
Vehicles may be unreliable because they are not suited to the work they have to do or the conditions they work in, because they are driven carelessly or misused in other ways, or because they are not properly maintained. The reliability of vehicles can be measured in terms of their availability, which is the proportion of the time that they are available for service (UN-HABITAT, 2011).
While the NEMA waste management regulations of 2006 are very clear on the type of vehicles that are to be used for MSWM in Kenya, open vehicles that spread waste as they are driven are currently being used on our roads posing both environmental and health risks.
The Schubeler et.al., (1996) conceptual framework
The Schubeler et. al. (1996) conceptual framework provides brief definitions of the main concepts of MSWM and identifies the goals and principles that normally guide MSWM system development. The conceptual framework is structured along three principle dimensions, corresponding to the questions: What is the scope of waste management activities? Who are the actors and development partners in the field? and, How should strategic objectives and issues be addressed?.
According to the conceptual framework, the goals of MSWM are: to protect environmental health, to promote the quality of the urban environment, to support the efficiency and productivity of the economy and to generate employment and income. On the other hand, the principles of sustainable waste management strategies are: to minimize waste generation, to maximise waste recycling and reuse, and to ensure the safe and environmentally sound disposal of waste. Concerning the scope of waste management activities, Schubeler et.al. (1996) assert that within the overall framework of urban management, the scope of MSWM encompasses planning and management, waste generation and waste handling processes.
The conceptual framework describes the (Actors) in MSWM as a wide range of public and private sector stakeholders e.g. individuals, groups and organisations are concerned with MSWM as service users, service providers, intermediaries and/or regulators. Schubeler et.al. describe context as the prevailing political, socio-cultural, economic and environmental factors which determine the effectiveness and sustainability of MSWM systems.
Lastly, the conceptual framework discusses the strategic aspects of MSWM. These aspects may be understood as those portions of the context which are directly influenced and/or mobilised by waste management strategies. Development of sustainable MSWM systems implies that specific objectives be formulated and appropriate measures taken regarding a range of strategic aspects for example, enhancing technical capacity in MSWM.
Kryptone Consulting Limited has staff with adequate capacity to offer solid waste management solutions. In our MSWM business undertakings, we have operationalized the Schubeler et.al. model and the UN waste management hierarchy model to fit our clients' needs. Our services here are:
By Michael Jumba
In one of our earlier articles on this platform, "Marketing Research of march 1, 2017", we discussed how the business environment is full of uncertainty and the need for businesses to adapt to the ever changing environment if they are to continue to be relevant. One methodology of adapting to the ever changing business environment is through the use of social media and social media marketing (SMM).
According to Neti (2011), Social media is hot. Social Media is now the trend and for businesses, it represents a marketing opportunity that transcends the traditional middleman and connects companies directly with customers. This is why nearly every business on the planet-from giants like Starbucks and IBM to the local ice cream shop-are exploring social media marketing initiatives. Much like email and websites first empowered businesses social media is the next marketing wave.
Monica and Raluca (2014) explains that earlier on, consumers used the Internet for its content: they read it, they watched it, and they used it in order to purchase various products and services. Nowadays, things have changed. More and more consumers are utilizing content sharing sites, blogs, social networking and wikis-to create, modify, share and discuss Internet content. This represents the social media phenomenon, which can have an enormous impact on a business’ reputation, sales and on its survival in an environment getting fiercer and fiercer as days pass.
so what is social media?
Social media is engaging with consumers online. According to Wikipedia, social media is internet-based tools for sharing and discussing information among human beings. Social media is all about networking and networking in a way that espouses trust among parties and communities involved. Any website which allows user to share their content, opinions, views and encourages interaction and community building can be classified as a social media. Some popular social media sites are: Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, Digg, MySpace, StumbleUpon, Delicious, Scribd, Flickr etc (Neti, 2011).
The meaning of the term ‘social media’ can be derived from two words which constitute it. Media generally refers to advertising and the communication of ideas or information through publications/channels. Social implies the interaction of individuals within a group or community. Taken together, social media simply refers to communication/publication platforms which are generated and sustained by the interpersonal interaction of individuals through the specific medium or tool (Neti, 2011). Wikipedia has a general definition of the term: Social Media is the democratization of information, transforming people from content readers into content publishers. It is the shift from a broadcast mechanism to a many-to-many model, rooted in conversations between authors, people, and peers.
Social media uses the “wisdom of crowds” to connect information in a collaborative manner. Social media can take many different forms, including Internet forums, message boards, weblogs, wikis, podcasts, pictures, and video.
Social media is made up of user-driven websites that are usually centered on a specific focus (Digg = news) or feature (del.icio.us = bookmarking). Sometimes, the community itself is the main attraction (Facebook and Myspace = networking).
Social media are media for social interaction, using highly accessible and scalable publishing techniques. Social media uses web-based technologies to turn communication into interactive dialogues.
social media marketing and how it all begun
While some might think that the Social Media Marketing (SMM) is a new phenomenon, the reality is that Social Media Marketing is not such a new phenomenon. It did not begin yesterday or the day before yesterday. It is actually more than ten years old. The entire phenomenon began with the launch of LinkedIn in 2003. But since this is a network targeted mainly to businesses its popularity is much lower than that of the social networks dedicated to the public at large (Monica and Raluca, 2014).
LinkedIn was soon followed by MySpace and Facebook in 2004. The hysteria of sharing pictures, videos and thoughts online was augmented by the launch of YouTube in 2005 and of Twitter in 2006. These are the main players on the market. They are doubled by some minor ones like LiveJournal (highly popular among Russian speaking internet users), MyLife, MySpace, Reddit, Tumblr, Netlog (popular in Turkey, Europe and the Arab World), Pinterest and SumbleUpon. Google decided to enter the game in 2011 with its social network platform named Google Plus, better known to users as Google+. According to reports revealed in 2013, Google+ had 300 million monthly users; quite far from the 1.32 billion monthly active users reported by Facebook in June 2014 (Monica and Raluca, 2014).
Social media marketing is marketing using online communities, social networks, blog marketing and more. It's the latest "buzz" in marketing. The explosion of social media phenomenon is as mind boggling as that and the pace at which it is growing is maddening (Neti, 2011).
Trust and goodwill are the basis of social networking, and by marketing in the realm of social media these fundamental notions need to be adhered. It is probably the only marketing platform that encourages fool proof communication and accountability among sellers as well as consumers. Global companies have recognized Social Media Marketing as a potential marketing platform, utilized them with innovations to power their advertising campaign with social media marketing (Neti, 2011).
Evidence from online sources seems to suggest that, different industries are adopting social media marketing at different rates, and while many industries have started using social media marketing in their efforts to reach more customers, many still have not positioned it as their top priority.
Charitable organizations seem to have outpaced the business world and academia in their use of social media. A majority of the organizations are blogging. While a sizable chunk report social media as very important to their fundraising strategy. While these organizations are best known for their nonprofit status and their fundraising campaigns, they demonstrate an acute, and still growing, awareness of the importance of Social Media strategies in meeting their objectives.
Even though many businesses are still at the experimental stage-learning how best to use social media tools, evidence indicates that marketers think social media marketing is here to stay and will play an increasingly important role in their work in acquiring and retaining customers in the future.
Thus, it is not an exaggeration to say that social media marketing is already a vital part of the 21st century marketing mix. The absence of social profiles on the “Big Three” (Facebook, Twitter and Google+) would definitely be a strategic mistake for businesses which want greater exposure and popularity on the digital market.
In an era where technology prevails, entrepreneurs as well as marketers see the need to keep up with the fast pace of change or risk being outdated. Gone are the days when a pure-bricks business model would thrive well in current market scenario. It is practically impossible to design a marketing strategy without considering social networks. Social media has become an important ingredient in today’s marketing mix in general and in promotion mix in particular. Adapting some form of marketing online through social media is a key for all businesses-if they are to stay relevant.
relevance of social media marketing
The role of social media in marketing is to use it as a communication tool that makes the companies accessible to those interested in their product and makes them visible to those that don't know their product. It should be used as a tool that creates a personality behind their brand and creates relationships that they otherwise may never gain. This creates not only repeat-buyers, but customer loyalty.
In a 2010 Social Media Marketing Industry Report 2010, a majority of marketers (56%) were using social media for 6 hours or more each week, and nearly one in three invested 11 or more hours weekly. Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn and blogs were the top four social media tools used by marketers, in order. A significant 81% of marketers planned on increasing their use of blogs. A majority of the marketers were employing social media for marketing purposes and small businesses were slightly more likely to use social media. 76% of marketers were spending at least 4 hours each week on their social media marketing efforts.
In the present context, it has increasingly become pertinent for companies to: (1) build a favorable base of consumers, and (2) involve them in decision making. Social media gives marketers a voice and a way to communicate with peers, customers and potential consumers. It personalizes the "brand" and helps you to spread the message in a relaxed and conversational way.
Adult beverage companies, exotic automobile manufacturers, pastry shops have been using social media tool. Pepsi Coke, Nokia and many of the top brands have effectively used social media for achieving their business objectives.
role of social media marketing
Social media is now increasingly becoming an ingrained aspect of political campaigns, national defense strategies, public policy, public relations, brand management and even intra company communication.
benefits of social media marketing
Significantly different from conventional marketing strategies, Social Media Marketing (SMM) offers three main distinct advantages. One, it provides a window to marketers to not only present products/services to customers but also to listen to customers’ grievances and suggestions. Two, it makes it easy for marketers to identify various peer groups or influencers among various groups, who in turn can become brand evangelist and help in organic growth of a brand. And, three, all this is done at nearly zero cost (as compared to conventional customer outreach programmes) as most of the social networking sites are free*(with the only thing paid for being the internet usage data bundle). For purposes of being specific, social media marketing helps in:
Why businesses need to consider social media marketing
At Kryptone Consulting Ltd, we have a team of dedicated individual who have the capacity to handle any social media marketing problem our clients might be facing. We offer the following solutions in the Africa cyber-territory:
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Bashar, A., Irshad, A., & Wasiq, M. (2012). EFFECTIVENESS OF SOCIAL MEDIA AS A MARKETING TOOL: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY. International Journal of Marketing, Financial Services & Management Research, 88-99.
Monica, B., & Raluca, B. (2014). Social Media Marketing to Increase Brand Awareness. Journal of Economics and Business Research, 155-164.
Neti, S. (2011). SOCIAL MEDIA AND ITS ROLE IN MARKETING. International Journal of Enterprise Computing and Business Systems, 1-16.
Wikipedia. (2017, March 5). Social Media. Retrieved from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media
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By Michael Jumba
Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and small and medium-sized manufacturing firms (SMFs) play a major role in countries at all levels of economic development with many acknowledging an increase in the proportion of SMEs and SMFs globally. It is predicted that the number of such entities will continue to grow, due to declines in manufacturing and growth in the service sector (Kobylanski and Szulc, 2011). As markets are becoming more global, many business opportunities are opening up for small and medium-sized businesses, but competitive pressure is increasing at the same time. They need to adjust their actions to the environmental challenges through active market development, a continuous search for market opportunities and expansion of their customer base. Many researchers and practitioners are looking to find the answer to the fundamental question as to why some organizations are more profitable with good perspectives for growth while others cannot achieve this feat (Kobylanski and Szulc, 2011).
The business environment is filled with a lot of uncertainty that come or may come in various forms. In addition to the everyday aspects of running a business, a company has to consider factors such as materials, energy shortages, inflation, economic recessions, unemployment, and technological changes. Increased competition in the global marketplace, the advancement of manufacturing technologies, and increasingly limited life cycle of products, have also greatly impacted product innovation strategies of the small and medium-sized manufacturing firms. A profitable company must respond to the market with its products and advertising (Smith and Albaum, 2012).
Another challenge that small firms are facing is that managers/owners often rely only on previous experience and common sense, because in their perception the boundary between marketing and selling becomes very blurred. One of the most important aspects that determine an organization’s market position is the entrepreneurs’ approach to market orientation and marketing actions. Small business managers’ attitude toward a structured approach to marketing can be seen as a sign of maturity and responsible decision making that can lead to a positive business performance. (Kobylanski and Szulc, 2011).
A substantial body of literature now highlights that there has been a fundamental and systematic change in the way small and medium-sized manufacturing firms SMFs undertake product innovation activities. Furthermore, use of external networks through collaboration and outsourcing has witnessed a substantial growth by the SMFs. External alliances and collaboration has become a cornerstone of the firm’s product innovation strategy by which we refer specifically to the use of outsourcing and strategic alliances to undertake product innovation.
The importance of external alliances in this sense is in relation to SMFs that lack the necessary resources and expertise to effectively manage the new product development process, from innovation to commercialization stages. Despite mostly having limited resources, SMFs need to overcome external barriers to growth by using external alliances if they are to continue to be relevant.
In order to be a successful entrepreneur one must adapt to the ever-changing business environment. A critical tool for measuring the market, staying competitive and adapting to the business environment is conducting rigorous marketing research (Smith and Albaum, 2012).
What is market research?
According to Smith and Albaum (2012), marketing research is about collecting information that will be used as evidence by decision makers to find solutions to business problems. Some of the business questions that are asked here are:
In simple terms that is to say, the solution to most business problems can be found through conducting marketing research. It is a search for information that will help you succeed in capturing your market share.
The focus of marketing research
Marketing research focuses on understanding the customer, the company, and the competition. These relationships are at the core of marketing research. Companies must understand and respond to what customers want from their products. However, this relationship is always influenced by competitors and how their products are received by your market. Thus, you must clearly identify the customer, company, and competition before developing a research project.
There are several important factors you must consider before you begin, including:
Methodologies of conducting marketing research
There are two main ways of going about marketing research; Fundamental research and Applied research.
Fundamental research seeks to extend the boundaries of knowledge in a given area and doesn’t necessarily solve your immediate problems. Nevertheless, it has useful applications. It reveals information and relationships that could be useful at a later date. For example, The PK company could conduct fundamental research about consumer preferences for certain combinations of chewing gum flavors under its label that differ in sugar type and strength of sweetness.
Applied research gathers information to solve a specific problem or set of problems. For instance, customers engaged in a blind taste test would respond with what they specifically liked or disliked about a new PK chewing gum product compared to a competitor’s product e.g Fresh chewing gum. This information could be used to tune your business plan, focus your advertising campaign, or improve your product.
Benefits of Market research
What we do for our clients
At Kryptone Consulting Ltd, we have a dedicated team of researchers: from fresh graduates who have just entered the job market to elite researchers who have over ten years experience conducting marketing research.
We specialize in finding creative and innovative ways to respond to our clients’ needs and challenges. The breadth and depth of our expertise allows us the flexibility to undertake a wide range of engagements. We provide solutions to match your needs.
We have business experience in the areas of automobile, agriculture, fast moving consumer goods, trade outlets, Information technology, Financial services, Travel & Tourism, Real estate among others.
We undertake the following types of studies;
Kobylanski, A., & Szulc, R. (2011). DEVELOPMENT OF MARKETING ORIENTATION IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES EVIDENCE FROM EASTERN EUROPE. International Journal of Management and Marketing Research, 51.
Royle, M. T., & Fox, G. (2011). THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSYCHOLOGICAL STRAIN SELF-REGULATION, AND INFORMAL ACCOUNTABILITY FOR OTHERS. International Journal of Management and Marketing Research, 1.
Sen, A. K., & Haq, K. (2011). PRODUCT INNOVATION BY SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED FIRMS THROUGH OUTSOURCING AND COLLABORATION. International Journal of Management and Marketing Research, 63-73.
Smith, S. M., & Albaum, G. S. (2012). Basic Marketing Research: Volume 1. Utah: Qualtrics Labs, Inc.
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