What is zoning?
Zoning is the practice of allocating different areas of a Town, or City different uses. Zoning is an explicit and legal way of ordering land uses and is the basic tool of urban planning today. Through zoning, local governments have the legal obligation (police power given to them by state goveernments) to relate every piece of private property to all others and to be concerned about the health, safety and well being of the community (http://www.uwec.edu/geography/Ivogeler/w270/zoning-history.htm).
Zoning allows a local government to control and regulate the uses and characteristics of buildings, structures, and land within its boundaries. The authority for zoning is broadly based on a community's police power, allowing for the protection of the public's health, safety, and general welfare (http://archive.cityofpaloalto.org/knowzone/news/details.asp?NewsID=787&TargetID=239#introduction).
History of Zoning
In the United States
Types of zoning
There are several types of zoning codes in use today and combinations thereof. It is sometimes difficult to distinguish between the "types" of codes and their respective "formats" or "techniques", so all will be discussed here to some extent (http://archive.cityofpaloalto.org/knowzone/news/details.asp?NewsID=787&TargetID=239#introduction).
Single Detached Residential Zone
Neighbourhood Convenience Commercial Zone
Industrial Business Zone
Urban Services zones
Urban Service Zone
Benefits of zoning
Some social scientists believe that accidents may reflect a person’s attitude towards life. They reason that frequent accidents are symptomatic of inadequate social adjustment. They state that as one’s person sense of social responsibility increases, the potential for accidents decreases correspondingly. The assumption is that as one lives by the internalized set of rules which govern one’s behavior in all activities. The more these rules reflect social irresponsibility the more likely it is that the individual will suffer an accident. This is quite relevant to the Kenyan Situation where both the government and the citizens don’t seem to care about fire safety management until when fires disasters occur.
Suchman theorized that rejection of social constraints leads to a higher incidence of accident injuries. He studied more than 1,500 high school and college students through personal interviews and written questionnaires. A significant relationship was found between accidents and characteristics commonly associated with social deviance. He reasoned that behavioral activities such as fighting and cheating on tests represented an attitude of social irresponsibility and could cause a person to be a high-risk candidate for accidental occurrences. (See figure below).
The recent Westgate mall attack perpetrated by the Al shabaab terrorists of Somalia has brought to the fore the status of safety, security and security apparatus in Kenya. People from diverse backgrounds; Muslims, Hindus and Christians alike, the young and the old were massacred in cold blood in the name of revenge by a terrorist gang that had warned Kenya long enough of impending attacks after Kenya decided in the October of 2011 to send its troops into Somalia in what was called "Operation protect the nation." Property of unknown value was destroyed and the longterm effect on the economy is going to be negative. This brings us to the following burning questions:
Questions that still linger over the Westgate mall attack:
The bottom line:
Following the events that unfolded on the fateful day and the way the country's security forces responded, it is clear that our security forces are ill trained, ill equipped, ill remunerated and this makes them react to security situations. Should we choose to continue this way, then we'll continue to lose innocent lives and hard earned property and this will affect the economy negatively. One sign of a failed security system is the inability to act on intelligence and surveillance data on time in order to identify and detect criminals before they commit their crimes.
Since the attack, there has been no serious action to ensure there is safety and security in this country- all we hear in the media is pure 'lip service' and the call for every Kenyan neighbours to know one another. Only time will tell if measures were taken to prevent a repeat of such an event but for the moment, "Be vigilant because you are your own security".