What is zoning?
Zoning is the practice of allocating different areas of a Town, or City different uses. Zoning is an explicit and legal way of ordering land uses and is the basic tool of urban planning today. Through zoning, local governments have the legal obligation (police power given to them by state goveernments) to relate every piece of private property to all others and to be concerned about the health, safety and well being of the community (http://www.uwec.edu/geography/Ivogeler/w270/zoning-history.htm).
Zoning allows a local government to control and regulate the uses and characteristics of buildings, structures, and land within its boundaries. The authority for zoning is broadly based on a community's police power, allowing for the protection of the public's health, safety, and general welfare (http://archive.cityofpaloalto.org/knowzone/news/details.asp?NewsID=787&TargetID=239#introduction).
History of Zoning
In the United States
Types of zoning
There are several types of zoning codes in use today and combinations thereof. It is sometimes difficult to distinguish between the "types" of codes and their respective "formats" or "techniques", so all will be discussed here to some extent (http://archive.cityofpaloalto.org/knowzone/news/details.asp?NewsID=787&TargetID=239#introduction).
Single Detached Residential Zone
Neighbourhood Convenience Commercial Zone
Industrial Business Zone
Urban Services zones
Urban Service Zone
Benefits of zoning
What is an Indicator?
An indicator can be defined as follows:
Types of Indicators (Performance indicators)
This type of indicators measure the quantity, quality and timeliness of resources-human, financial and material technological and information provided for a project, program or activity.
These measure the progress of activities in a program or project.
Output indicators measure the quantity, quality and timeliness of the products (goods or services) that are the result of an activity, project or program.
They measure the intermediate results generated by programme outputs. Correspond to any change in people's behaviour as a result of project or program activities.
Characteristics of a good indicator
Objectively Verifiable Indicators (OVIs)
Objectively verifiable indicators are signs or signals demonstrating whether each level of the vertical logic is or is not being achieved.
They must be valid, reliable, precise, cost-effective and stated independently from other levels. They ought to make clear how the target group will benefit from the realisation of outputs. Indicators should be specific in terms of: Quantity, Quality, Time, Target group and place.
Examples of Indicators
Land use indicators
Surface water indicators
EIA is a systematic examination conducted to determine whether or not an activity or project will have any adverse impact on the environment. It is designed to Identify, Interpret, predict and communicate information about the impact of a project. It is a critical and objective examination of the impacts of a project on the environment before its implementation. The term impact describes both negative and positive environmental influences caused by a project.
Functions of E.I.A
Core values of E.I.A
Guiding Principles of E.I.A