EIA is a systematic examination conducted to determine whether or not an activity or project will have any adverse impact on the environment. It is designed to Identify, Interpret, predict and communicate information about the impact of a project. It is a critical and objective examination of the impacts of a project on the environment before its implementation. The term impact describes both negative and positive environmental influences caused by a project.
Functions of E.I.A
Core values of E.I.A
Guiding Principles of E.I.A
Kryptone Consulting limited Solid Waste Management operations may include in or preference, source reduction, reuse, recycling, composting, thermal reduction in incenerators, properly constructed landfill on site, local disposal in properly constructed landfill or incenerator or burn pit.
In executing Solid waste management operations, it is Kryptone's goal to employ all of the above options as applicable, with the resources and conditions at each site, while achieving service, environmental and ethical obligations. In application, Kryptone's goal is to reduce or eliminate (preferred) the use of burn pits, where possible. Burn pits are an expedient method to destroy and reduce the volume of solid waste (quick fix). However, burn pits lead to alot of air pollution.
All Solid waste must be sorted to remove non-combustible materials and prevent the release of hazardous/regulated waste. The most favourable Solid waste option is to reduce, reuse and/ or recycle waste. Waste that cannot be reused/recycled should be reduced in volume, such as through incineration, shredding or compacting (baling). The accepted waste disposal option is to landfill without volume reduction. Land farming or composting is recommended for biodegradable waste where possible. Such operations ought to be integrated with any nation building program.
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Greenhouses are structures that enable the cultivation of fresh agricultural produce (such as fruits, vegetables, flowers, etc.) in qualities, quantities and time periods otherwise impossible to achieve when cultivating on the same region in the open.
The area of the greenhouse is separated from the outside environment by a transparent cover that lets sunlight through and provides a wide variety of services to the plants and to the farmer:
Depending on the natural environmental conditions, the type of crop, and the farmer's requirements, different technical solutions can be found to achieve the same goal.
Therefore, tropical regions usually have many greenhouses whose main function is to provide physical protection for the crops – to protect the plants from winds and natural harms, to protect against rain in order to control the irrigation and fertilization routine, and sometimes in order to overcome diseases and pests.
These designated greenhouses are usually simple and cheap structures, covered in thin plastic sheets, with set ventilation openings and without unnecessary means of monitoring and control.
Soil conservation efforts are mainly aimed at preventing soil erosion and keeping it conducive for plant growth. It is important to note that soil is one of the most important natural resources and hence the need to devise and implement ways of conserving it.
Plants meant for subsistence are at the base of a food pyramid and are crucial to the existence of life. Plants need soil for survival. Soil is one of the three main factors responsible for plant growth, the others being sunlight and water. Plants extract water and nutrients from the soil. So soil is an important constituent of the ecological system and its conservation is essential.
To conserve soil is to prevent it from being eroded and from losing its fertility due to alteration in its chemical composition. Planting trees and terracing are two of the best ways to prevent soil erosion. Similarly, certain farming practices like no-till and contour plowing help prevent loosening of the soil. Preventing pollution of soil helps maintain soil health, contributing to the conservation of this precious natural resource.
Ways to conserve soil
Plant grass and ground cover:
Bare ground and soils are frequently eroded by strong winds and heavy rainfall. The intact roots of lawn grass or ground cover will help retain the soil when these areas are exposed to strong winds and rains.
We all know that roots of trees firmly hold on to the soil. As trees grow, their roots also grow deep into the soil. As the roots of trees spread deep into the layers of soil, they hold it tightly, thus preventing soil erosion. Trees also act as wind barriers and breakers hence preventing the surface soil from wind erosion.
A terrace is a leveled section of a hilly cultivated area. Owing to its unique structure, it prevents rapid surface runoff of water. Terracing gives the landmass a stepped appearance, thus slowing the washing down of soil.
The process of preparing soil for plowing is known as tilling. No-till farming is a way of growing crops without disturbing it through tillage. The process of tilling is beneficial in mixing fertilizers in the soil, making rows and preparing the surface for sowing. But the tilling activity can lead to compaction of soil, loss of organic matter in the soil and the death of soil organisms. No-till farming is a way to prevent the soil from this harm.
This practice of farming on slopes takes into account the slope gradient and the elevation of soil along the slope. It is the method of plowing across the contour lines of a slope. This method helps in slowing the water runoff and prevents soil from being washed away along the slope. Contour plowing also helps in percolation of water in the soil.
Some pathogens tend to build up in soil if the same crops are cultivated again and again. Continuous cultivation of the same crop also leads to imbalance in the fertility demands of the soil. To save the soil from these adverse effects, crop rotation is practiced. It is a method of growing a series of dissimilar crops in an area. Crop rotation also helps in the improvement of soil structure and fertility.
Maintain Soil pH:
The contamination of soil by addition of acidic or basic pollutants and due to acid rains has an adverse effect on the soil pH. Soil pH is an indicator of the level of nutrients in soil. The uptake of nutrients by plants also depends on the pH of soil. Maintaining the correct value of soil pH, is thus essential for soil conservation.
Water the Soil:
We water plants, we water the crops, but do we water the soil? We seldom do. Watering soil is a good measure of soil conservation. Watering the soil along with plants growing in it is a way to prevent soil erosion caused by wind.
The salinity of soil increases due to excessive accumulation of salts in the soil. This has a negative effect on the metabolism of crops. The salinity of soil is detrimental to the vegetative life in it. The death of vegetation leads to soil erosion. Hence, salinity management is an indirect way of conserving soil.
Promote Helpful Soil Organisms:
Nitrogen-fixing and denitrifying bacteria are important constituents of the nitrogen cycle. They live in soil. Bacteria and fungi help keep the soil healthy. Organisms like earthworms help decompose organic material in the soil. They aid soil aeration and help it maintain porosity. Rodents too, help soil the same way. This increases the absorbing capacity of soil. Earthworms, through aeration of soil, enhance the availability of macronutrients. These helpful organisms boost soil fertility and help in soil conservation.
Grow Indigenous Crops:
Planting native crops is beneficial for soil conservation. If non-native plants are grown, fields should be bordered by indigenous crops to prevent soil erosion, thus achieving soil conservation.
More Tips to conserve soil
Mulch is a covering placed over soil to protect it from erosion and help the soil retain water content. Mulch also serves as a good source of nutrients for plants and helps them sustain in times of drought and dry weather. Mulching is a good practice for conservation of soil moisture.
Harmful gases and solid wastes that pollute air and water, also pollute land, rendering the soil infertile. Excessive deposition of salts in the soil makes it unsuitable for plant growth. In the absence of vegetation, soil is exposed to erosion due to wind and water. Good farming and gardening practices can help restore soil health and preserve this natural resource.
Climate Change is a major environmental problem facing the globe today. It is decribed as a significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years. a change in global climate patterns apparent from the mid to late 20th century onwards, attributed largely to the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the use of fossil fuels.
It may be a change in the average weather conditions or a change in the distribution of weather events with respect to an average, for example, greater or fewer extreme weather events. Climate change may be limited to a specific region, or may occur across the whole Earth.
According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), there are seven indicators that are increasing and would be expected to increase in a warming world, they are: Humidity; Atmospheric Temperature; Sea surface temeperature; Sea level; Ocean Heat Content; Temperature over oceans, and; Temperature over land.
Three indicators are decreasing and would be expected to decrease even more, they are: Sea ice; Glaciers, and; Snow cover.
The recent Westgate mall attack perpetrated by the Al shabaab terrorists of Somalia has brought to the fore the status of safety, security and security apparatus in Kenya. People from diverse backgrounds; Muslims, Hindus and Christians alike, the young and the old were massacred in cold blood in the name of revenge by a terrorist gang that had warned Kenya long enough of impending attacks after Kenya decided in the October of 2011 to send its troops into Somalia in what was called "Operation protect the nation." Property of unknown value was destroyed and the longterm effect on the economy is going to be negative. This brings us to the following burning questions:
Questions that still linger over the Westgate mall attack:
The bottom line:
Following the events that unfolded on the fateful day and the way the country's security forces responded, it is clear that our security forces are ill trained, ill equipped, ill remunerated and this makes them react to security situations. Should we choose to continue this way, then we'll continue to lose innocent lives and hard earned property and this will affect the economy negatively. One sign of a failed security system is the inability to act on intelligence and surveillance data on time in order to identify and detect criminals before they commit their crimes.
Since the attack, there has been no serious action to ensure there is safety and security in this country- all we hear in the media is pure 'lip service' and the call for every Kenyan neighbours to know one another. Only time will tell if measures were taken to prevent a repeat of such an event but for the moment, "Be vigilant because you are your own security".
What is Sustainable Development (SD)?
The most frequently quoted definition of Sustainable Development is from Our Common Future, also known as the Brundtland Report: Sustainable development is "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs."
It contains within it two key concepts:
Thus the goals of economic and social development must be defined in terms of sustainability in all countries - developed or developing, market-oriented or centrally planned. Interpretations will vary, but must share certain general features and must flow from a consensus on the basic concept of sustainable development and on a broad strategic framework for achieving it.
Development involves a progressive transformation of economy and society. A development path that is sustainable in a physical sense could theoretically be pursued even in a rigid social and political setting. But physical sustainability cannot be secured unless development policies pay attention to such considerations as changes in access to resources and in the distribution of costs and benefits. Even the narrow notion of physical sustainability implies a concern for social equity between generations, a concern that must logically be extended to equity within each generation.
The Concept Sustainable Development focuses on the following: